A situation in which the child has been left by the parent(s), the parent's identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child suffers serious harm, as a result of his/her desertion, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or to provide reasonable support for a specified period of time.

Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE)

Expérience de vie adverse à l'enfance (ACE)

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are potentially traumatic events that occur before a child reaches the age of 18. Such experiences can interfere with a person’s health, opportunities and stability throughout his or her lifetime, and can even affect future generations. 

Adverse Effect

Effet adverse

An unwanted or indesirable consequence that happens after an action or conversation. For exemple, sleeping disturbances can be an adverse effect of sexual abuse.

Affect Regulation

Régulation des émotions / régulation émotionnelle

Affect regulation is the ability to act on one's own emotions. It is a complex psychological process that covers the ability to trigger, inhibit, maintain or modulate one's own affects and emotions.

Altered Self-Capacity

Capacité du soi altérée

It refers to an individual’s psychological functioning incapacity in the areas of forming and maintaining meaningful relationships, creating a stable sense of personal identity and self-awareness, and the ability to modulate and tolerate negative affect. 

Ambivalent Attachment

Attachement ambivalent

A form of insecure attachment in which infants show a combination of positive and negative responses toward a parent. After separation, for example, infants may simultaneously seek and resist close contact with the returning parent. Also called resistant attachment. 



Anorexia is characterized by the search for thinness, the morbid fear of eating and the fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. It is characterized by a stubborn and sometimes dangerous food restriction.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)

Trouble de la personnalité antisociale (TPAS)

Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a persistent pattern of disregard for consequences and the rights of others. These individuals commit illegal, deceptive, reckless acts and exploit others for personal gain or pleasure without feeling any remorse.

Attachment Style

Style d'attachement

Attachment styles are based on children's reactions to interactions with their parents in terms of the degree of availability, consistency, protection, and reassurance offered. These are based on abandonment anxiety and level of intimacy avoidance and include four styles: secure, avoidant-fearful, preoccupied, and detached.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder / Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)

Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDA/H)

It is a disorder affecting concentration, attention span, impulsivity and hyperactivity where individuals are inattentive, easily distracted, impulsive or very active.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Trouble du spectre de l'autisme (TSA)

A complex developmental condition involving persistent challenges with social communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behavior. While autism is considered a lifelong disorder, the degree of impairment in functioning because of these challenges varies between individuals with autism.

Avoidant Attachment

Attachement évitant

A form of insecure attachment in which infants do not seek proximity to their parent after separation. Instead, the infant does not appear distressed by the separation and avoids the returning parent.

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