One who provides for the physical, emotional, and social needs of a dependent person. The term most often applies to parents or parent surrogates, child care and nursery workers, health-care specialists, and relatives caring for children, elderly, or ill family members.
Child abuse includes physical, emotional and sexual abuse and neglect. It also addresses a pattern of abuse and risks of harm, and is often perpatrated by parental figures.
Childhood adversity is a broad term that refers to a wide range of circumstances or events that pose a serious threat to a child’s physical or psychological well-being. It includes child abuse and neglect, exposure to domestic violence, bullying, serious accidents or injuries, discrimination, extreme poverty, and community violence.
This type of trauma refers to psychological, physical or sexual violence, psychological and physical neglect, bullying by peers and exposure to psychological and physical violence between parental figures. These traumas occur in childhood, are usually perpetrated by parental figures and impede survivors’ well-being.
The physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult (biological or adoptive parents, step-parents, guardians, other adults). This includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, exposure to domestic violence, and neglect.
Child neglect occurs when a caregiver fails to provide basic needs such as adequate food, sleep, safety, education, clothing or medical treatment. It also includes leaving a child alone or failing to provide adequate supervision.
Child proteciton or child welfare is defined as measures and structures to fulfil children’s rights to protection, and to prevent, protect and respond to abuse, neglect, exploitation as well as violence affecting children.
Any type of sexual activity with children and youth in exchange for money, drugs, food, shelter or any other considerations.
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder is specific to serious and repetitive traumas that occur during childhood, most often in the form of abuse and which have important consequences in adulthood, particularly in terms of emotional regulation.
This type of trauma is related to chronic and repeated interpersonal traumas and the complex and lasting sequelae associated with them, particularly in the relational, affective, behavioral and identity spheres.
Conduct disorder is characterized by recurrent or persistent behavior in which the child flouts the rights of others or the main rules or social norms related to his age.
It refers to any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light. It involves hitting (smacking, slapping, spanking) children with a hand or implement (whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon or similar) but it can also involve kicking, shaking or throwing children, scratching, pinching, biting, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, burning, scalding or forced ingestion.
The way individuals interact with each other. These patterns are predictable and stable in time.
Couples therapy attempts to improve romantic relationships and resolve interpersonal conflicts.
Crime Victims Assistance Centres, or CAVACs, offer front-line services to any crime victim or witness. Help from CAVACs is available whether the perpetrator of the crime has been identified, apprehended, prosecuted or convicted.
Cumulative trauma refers to the accumulation of interpersonal trauma, with greater repercussions, such as more severe and complex symptoms.
Cybervictimization is defined as deliberate and repeated harm inflicted through computers, cell phones and other electronic devices that is intended to threaten, harass, embarrass or socially exclude another person using online technology.