Therapeutic alliance refers to the mutual collaboration based on trust that is established between the patient and the therapist, which is essential for the achievement of the objectives. This notion of alliance is central and without it, the risk of failure is greater.
Toxic stress is a type of stress that can occur when a child experiences strong, frequent, and/or prolonged adversity—such as physical or emotional abuse, chronic neglect, caregiver substance abuse or mental illness, exposure to violence, and/or the accumulated burdens of family economic hardship—without adequate adult support.
Any disturbing experience that results in significant fear, helplessness, dissociation, confusion, or other disruptive feelings intense enough to have a long-lasting negative effect on a person’s attitudes, behavior, and other aspects of functioning. Traumatic events often challenge an individual’s view of the world as a just, safe, and predictable place.
Source : https://dictionary.apa.org/trauma
Trauma-informed care consider the traumas experienced and avoid creating new ones in survivors through practices based on awareness, transparency, support, collaboration, safety, choice, collaboration, autonomy and respect in all spheres of care.
Traumatic stress is a normal reaction to an abnormal event, often related to post-traumatic stress disorder.