Treatment & Intervention

This section of the portal provides resources related to treatment of child and youth trauma and other related trauma-focused and trauma-informed interventions.

Books & Articles for Practitioners

Working with Children and Youth with Complex Needs

20 skills to build resilience

This new edition of Working with Children and Youth with Complex Needs provides detailed descriptions of techniques, ample case studies, fascinating and easy to understand explanations of research, and rich stories of how social workers, psychologists, counselors, child and youth care workers, and other mental health professionals can help young people become more resilient.

- Created by Dr. Michael Ungar.

Treating Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents: How to Foster Resilience through Attachment, Self-Regulation, and Competency

Created by Dr. Margaret E. Blaustein and Kristine M. Kinniburgh.

The Attachment, Regulation, and Competency (ARC) framework can be used with children, parents, and other caregivers in a wide range of settings. The volume guides the clinician to identify key treatment goals and intervene flexibly to strengthen child–caregiver relationships and support healthy development and positive functioning. In a large-size format with lay-flat binding for easy photocopying, it is packed with case vignettes and clinical tools, including 79 reproducible handouts and forms.  

Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Scientific Foundations and Therapeutic Models

Created by Dr. Julian D. Ford and Dr. Christine A. Courtois.

With contributions from prominent experts, this pragmatic book takes a close look at the nature of complex psychological trauma in children and adolescents and the clinical challenges it presents. Each chapter shows how a complex trauma perspective can provide an invaluable unifying framework for case conceptualization, assessment, and intervention amidst the chaos and turmoil of these young patients' lives.  

Treating Complex Trauma in Adolescents and Young Adults

Created by Dr. John N. Briere and Dr. Cheryl B. Lanktree.

Treating Complex Trauma in Adolescents and Young Adults is the first empirically-validated, multi-component manual to guide practitioners and students in the treatment of multi-traumatized adolescents and young adults. Integrative Treatment of Complex Trauma for Adolescents (ITCT-A) integrates a series of approaches and techniques, which are adapted according to the youth's specific symptoms, culture, and age.

Creative Interventions with Traumatized Children

Created by Dr. Cathy A. Malchiodi and Dr. Bruce D. Perry.

This volume demonstrates a range of creative approaches for facilitating children's emotional reparation and recovery from trauma. Experts in play, art, music, movement, and drama therapy, as well as bibliotherapy, describe step-by-step strategies for working with children, families, and groups. Rich with case material and artwork, the book is both practical and user-friendly.

It’s Not You, It’s What Happened to You: Complex Trauma and Treatment

Created by Dr. Christine Courtois.

This book offers information about complex trauma and explanation on the three-stage statement model 

Treating Traumatized Children: Risk, Resilience and Recovery

Created by Dr. Danny Brom, Dr. Ruth Pat-Horenczyk and Dr. Julian D. Ford.

This book discusses risk and protective factors for the development of post-traumatic disorders, conceptualizations of resilience and suggestions for making them operational and evidence-based treatment models for traumatized children. It also helps professionals and researchers develop future treatments based on current evidence. 

A Child's Loss: Helping Children Exposed to Traumatic Death

Created by Jana L. Rosenfelt and Dr. Bruce D. Perry.

This short booklet provides useful information for adults living and working with children impacted by traumatic death.

Trauma Responsive Child Welfare systems

Created by Dr. Ginny Sprang and Dr. Virginia C. Strand.

This comprehensive reference offers a robust framework for introducing and sustaining trauma-responsive services and culture in child welfare systems. Organized around concepts of safety, permanency, and well-being, chapters describe innovations in child protection, violence prevention, foster care, and adoption services to reduce immediate effects of trauma on children and improve long-term development and maturation. Foundations and interventions for practice include collaborations with families and community entities, cultural competency, trauma-responsive assessment and treatment, promoting trauma-informed parenting, and, when appropriate, working toward reunification of families.

Childhood Maltreatment

Created by Dr. Christine Wekerle, Dr. David A. Wolfe, Dr. Judith A. Cohen, Dr. Daniel S. Bromberg and Dr. Laura Murray.

This evidence-based guide to assessing, reporting, and treating childhood maltreatment is essential reading for any professional working with children. It provides knowledge on the latest knowledge about childhood maltreatment and hands-on information on trauma-based CBT.

Cruel but not Unusual

Created by Dr. Ramona Alaggia and Cathy Vine.

A book that reflects the patriarchal roots and societal conditions in Canada that have led to the long-standing abuse of women and children 

Healing the Traumatized Self: Consciousness, Neuroscience, Treatment

Created by Dr. Paul Frewen, Dr. Ruth Lanius, Dr. Bessel van der Kolk and Dr. David Spiegel.

This book discusses the neurobiology behind emotional states and presents exercises for developing self-awareness. The book also includes case studies, detailed instructions for clinicians, and handouts ready for use in assessment/therapy with patients/clients. 

Income Support May Reduce Violence for Poor Families

Created by Dr. Katherine Maurer for the Center for Poverty Research.

This article provides information on how poverty and income instability may increase risks of violence in families. It also presents ways to overcome this situation. 

The Neurobiological Power of Play Using the Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics to Guide Play in the Healing Process

Created by the Child Trauma Academy.

In this article, the use of the neurosequential model of therapeutics to guide play in the healing process is discussed.

The Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics

Created by the Child Trauma Academy.

This article offers information on the neurosequentail model of therapeutics with case examples.


Boys' and men's health: Child sexual abuse prevention

This video provides information on the stigmas surrounding male childhood sexual abuse and its repercussions. It also gives tips for services providers to help this specific population. 

- Created by the Institute of Human Development, Child and Youth Health (IHDCYH) Talks.

Supporting the wellbeing of infants and children through a trauma-informed lens

The panel of experts discuss the evidence behind the prevalence and effects of complex trauma on early child development and wellbeing. They also explore the skills required to have preventative and early intervention conversations with parents and caregivers of infants and children who have experienced complex trauma.

- Created by Emerging Minds. 

Trauma Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

In this video, Dr. Julian Ford talks about how to discuss PTSD with youth and presents two clinical interventions: TFCBT and TARGET. 

- Created by Policy Research Associates.

Supporting children who have disclosed trauma

This webinar explored ways that practitioners can support children who are experiencing self-blame after sexual or physical abuse.

- Created by Emerging Minds. 

Youth Suicide Prevention Video Series (Free)

These educational videos were created for caregivers of youth with mental health concerns and provide information on how to support and respond to youth when they are thinking of harming themselves or have already tried to do so.

- Created by McMaster Children’s Hospital.

On-Demand Webinar (Not Free)

These one-hour webinars are available for 30 days after purchase, but PowerPoint PDFs remain accessible after this delay. These webinars address different topics, including addiction and mental health, anxiety in youth, attachment, autism, bullying, and much more.

- Created by the Crisis and Trauma Resource Institute.

Trauma-informed Care: Youth Sexual and Non-Sexual Violence Experiences and the ARC model

In this presentation, participants will: (1) distinguish simple trauma from complex trauma, (2) understand the biological, psychological and relational impact of complex trauma, (3) document the principles of trauma-informed care, and (4) learn about trauma-informed initiatives based on the Attachment, Regulation, and Competency (ARC) model.

- Created by Children's HealthCare Canada.

INNclusion: Prevention of 2SLBGTQ+ Youth Homelessness Through Peer Support and Population Based Transitional Housing

This panel, presented during the 2022 Trauma Symposium, addresses the mission and impacts of Blue Door, the reality of homelessness among 2SLGBTQ+ youth, and ways organizations can become inclusive and responsive to their reality.

- By Alex Cheng, Cheyanne Ratnam & Alex Abramovich.

Integrating the Voices of Youth in Clinical Training Approaches for Childhood Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence (CEIPV)

This panel, presented during the 2022 Trauma Symposium, addresses the benefits of youth engagement, provides skills for working with people who have childhood experiences of IPV, and offers recommendations based on this study’s findings.

- By Olivia Cullen, Angelique Jenney & Laura Lynn Shiels.


The Use of Simulation-Based Learning Approaches to Improve Access to Trauma-Informed Care in Children's Mental Health Settings

This panel, presented during the 2022 Trauma Symposium, discusses an innovating training approach that provides access to experiential learning within a community-based setting using multiple modalities within the area of SBL (live in-person, virtual, and gaming situations) to increase access to training and upskilling opportunities for both students and professional practitioners.

- By Angelique Jenney, Emma Morgan & Narmin Nikdel.

Programs & Courses

NCTSN Learning Center

This source for online training offers free courses and resources on various aspects of child traumatic stress, including hundreds of webinars, eLearning modules, and videos - many offered for continuing education credit).

- Created by the National Traumatic Child Stress Network.

Working with children who have experienced trauma

Online Courses

Emerging Minds has developed a suite of free online learning courses and resources to assist different practitioners – from students and volunteers through to specialist practitioners – to understand and support children and families who have experienced trauma.

These include: The impact of trauma on the child; Supporting children who have experienced trauma; Supporting children who disclose trauma

- Created by Emerging Minds.

Complexly traumatized children and youth:

Increasing knowledge and improving practices (Dr. Delphine Collin-Vézina)

In this workshop, the trainer will review the individual, familial, social and cultural factors that have influence over the appearance of long term side effects following repeated trauma; they will present, in detail, the Attachment, Self-Regulation and Competency Model; (ARC, Kinniburgh, Blaustein, Spinazzola & van der Kolk, 2005). This course is intended for healthcare workers who wish to identify and serve youth with a history of multiple abuse.

- Created by Porte-Voix - Formations continues en santé mentale. 

Interventions for Complex Trauma

Created by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

The following interventions have been developed specifically for Complex Trauma and were designed to address a range of developmental concerns and competencies. Some intervene individually with children, adolescents, or young adults, while others involve work with children and their caregivers together, or with the entire family.

Attachment, Regulation and Competency (ARC) Framework

Created by ARC.

Intervention developed for children and adolescents who have experienced complex trauma, along with their caregiving systems.

ARC Grow

Created by ARC.

Twelve-session program designed to enhance resilient outcomes for families who are impacted by chronic adversity or stress. 

ARC Reflections Training Program (FREE)

Created by The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Free nine-session program to train foster parents to better care for children who have had traumatic experiences. 


Created by HEARTS at University of California San Francisco.

HEARTS is a whole-school, prevention and intervention approach that utilizes a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) framework to address trauma and chronic stress at the student level, staff level, and school organizational level.

Caring for Children Who Have Experienced Trauma (FREE)

Created by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

A Workshop for Resource Parents (also known as RPC – Resource Parent Curriculum). Complete program FREE to download online. 

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Created by the National Therapist Certification Program from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for children and adolescents impacted by trauma and their parents or caregivers. Research shows that TF-CBT successfully resolves a broad array of emotional and behavioral difficulties associated with single, multiple and complex trauma experiences. This is the official TF-CBT National Therapist Certification Program, in which clinicians can become certified in the TF-CBT treatment model. 

Center on Trauma and Children – Trauma-informed Interventions Available

Created by the Center of Trauma and Children at University of Kentucky.

In this section of the website, it provides information on different trauma-informed interventions that exist and it is also accompanied by short videos.

Being Trauma Aware Course (Free)

Created by the Luna Centre and the Public Health Agency of Canada.

This free three-hour course is designed to equip and empower people who work with children and youth to be a support to children who may have been exposed to maltreatment or other adverse experiences. 

NMT Training - Trauma-Informed Training and Professional Development

Created by Hull Services.

​​​​​​Training focuses on trauma-informed practice for frontline staff, caregivers, schools, agencies, and community partners. Training can be tailored to the specific needs of the organization and training participants in terms of length of training, didactic or interactive, and topic.

Brain Booster Activity Cards (Not Free)

Created by Hull Services.

​​​​​These cards outline a set of enrichment activities that are intended to provide targeted positive activation of key systems in the brain. They support self-regulation and sensory integration when used in the context of positive relationships. The cards allow therapists, educators, parents, and caregivers to select an activity that meets the developmental needs of children.

Behaviour Approaches for Children and Youth with Disturbances of Attachment

Created by the Child and Parent Resource Institute (CPRI).

​​​​​This page provides a better understanding of the challenging behaviors that children who have experienced trauma may exhibit as well as alternative interventions that can be put in place. 

Using Your Senses Can Help

Created by the Child and Parent Resource Institute (CPRI).

This page offers a concrete tool to help children focus on their senses in order to better manage their emotions.

Ways to Relax

Created by the Child and Parent Resource Institute (CPRI).

​​​​​​ This page offers concrete ways to relax.

Trainings and Prevention Workshops (Free and Not Free)

Created by Marie-Vincent Foundation.

These trainings and workshops are designed for a variety of professionals who want to learn more about best practices regarding sexual assault.

Children and Residential Experiences: CARE - Creating Conditions for Change (Not Free)

Created by the Residential Child Care Project.

The CARE model is a principle-based program model that provides organizations a framework for practice based on a valid theory of how children develop. It motivates children and staff to adhere to routines, structures, and processes while minimizing the potential for interpersonal conflict.

Therapeutic Crisis Intervention

Created by the Residential Child Care Project.

This formation helps residential child care organizations to create trauma-sensitive environments where children and adults are safe and feel safe, to pro-actively prevent and/or de-escalate potential crisis situations with children, to manage a crisis situation in a therapeutic manner, and, if necessary, intervene physically in a manner that reduces the risk of harm to children and staff, to process the crisis event with children to help improve their coping strategies, and to effectively deliver in-house TCI training.

Workshops (Not Free)

Created by the Crisis and Trauma Resource Institute.

These online workshops address different subjects, including anxiety, violent situations, counselling, trauma-informed care, trauma, borderline personality disorder, vicarious trauma, and more. 


VEGA Family Education Resources

Pan-Canadian, evidence-based guidance and education resources to assist healthcare and social service providers in recognizing and responding safely to family violence. VEGA focuses on three main types of family violence: child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, and children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. VEGA has developed an online platform of education resources comprised of learning modules (e.g., care pathways, scripts, how-to videos), interactive educational scenarios and a Handbook.

- Created by Project VEGA - McMaster University. 

Self-reg 101

Created by The MEHRIT Centre.

Infosheets, discussion guides & groups, visuals, infographics, publications, newsletters.

Center on the Developing Child

Created by the Center on the Developing Child.

The Center strives to present information, especially scientific information, in a way that is accessible to a wide range of readers. Use the menus below to filter by media type or topic.

Treating Trauma with Compassion-Based Therapies

Created by the National Institute for the Clinical Application of Behavioral Medicine (NICABM).

Compassion can be uniquely effective for healing the shame and self-criticism that often stem from trauma. So how can we help clients begin to accept compassion – both from others and themselves?

Mobile Applications

Help Kids Cope

Created by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network.

Helps parents talk to their kids about the disasters they may face and know how best to support them throughout—whether sheltering-in-place at home, evacuating to a designated shelter, or helping your family heal after reuniting. This mobile app is also a great resource for teachers and other professionals involved in children's lives. This is the iOS version of the app.

TF-CBT Triangle of Life App

Created by the National Therapist Certification Program from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

This app is designed to help therapists to implement TF-CBT cognitive processing with traumatized children.

Presentations & Articles

Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy

Created by Dr. Julian D. Ford and Judith Ford.

This presentation provides information on PTSD as well as tools that can be presented to clients facing triggering situations related to PTSD.

Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

Created by Dr. Judith A. Cohen, Dr. Anthony P. Mannarino, Dr. Matthew Kliethermes and Dr. Laura A. Murray.

TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma.

Statistics on Sexual Violence

Created by Marie-Vincent Foundation.

This page provides information on various statistics related to sexual violence.


Supporting children who disclose trauma

Part one

In the first episode of this two-part series, David Tully talks about how children make meaning of their experiences of trauma and sexual abuse, and how perpetrators can manipulate children into believing they were complicit in the abuse. He discusses the practitioner’s role in bringing power and protest into focus, in ways that begin to challenge children’s feelings of shame and self-blame. And he describes how being curious about the small acts of resistance that children demonstrate throughout traumatic experiences can help to honor their resilience, connections and courage.

- Created by Emerging Minds Podcast.

Supporting children who disclose trauma

Part two

In the second episode of this two-part series, David Tully talks about the role of therapy in helping children to develop and understand their identity in the context of trauma or abuse. He describes the importance of helping children to discover new identities, built from their stories of protest, resistance and resilience. These identities help counteract the stories of failure that so many children carry with them after experiences of trauma or abuse.

- Created by Emerging Minds Podcast. 

Counselling Insights

This podcast, hosted by Vicki Enns, CTRI Clinical Director, MMFT, RMFT, addresses topics often discussed by professionals providing counselling, including imposter syndrome, power of play, sexuality, culture, identity, and much more.

- Created by the Crisis and Trauma Resource Institute.

Books for children

A Terrible Thing Happened: A Story for Children Who Have Witnessed Violence or Trauma

Created by Margaret M. Holmes.

This gently told and tenderly illustrated story is for children who have witnessed any kind of violent or traumatic episode, including physical abuse, school or gang violence, accidents, homicide, suicide, and natural disasters such as floods or fire. An afterword by Sasha J. Mudlaff written for parents and other caregivers offers extensive suggestions for helping traumatized children, including a list of other sources that focus on specific events. 

Please Tell: A child’s story about sexual abuse

Created by Jessie.

Written and illustrated by a young girl who was sexually molested by a family member, this book reaches out to other children in a way that no adult can, Jessie's words carry the message, “It's o.k. to tell; help can come when you tell.”

A Place for Starr: A Story of Hope for Children Experiencing Family Violence

Created by Howard Schor.

A Place for Starr follows a brave girl and her family as they break the cycle of violence. 

Help Your Dragon Cope with Trauma: A Cute Children Story to Help Kids Understand and Overcome Traumatic Events

Created by Steve Herman.

This is a book for children, parents and teachers to teach kids to understand and overcome traumatic events that they might experience. 

The Day my Daddy Lost His Temper: Empowering Kids That Have Witnessed Domestic Violence

Created by Dr. Carol Santana McCleary.

The Empowering Kids Series is a collection of empathically reflective stories told from the perspective of young children. These books are meant to be used by parents and mental health providers to facilitate the child's verbalization of their feelings and experiences, thereby advancing the healing process and are aimed at validating the readers' experiences and feelings, thereby reducing feelings of shame and isolation.

Once I Was Very Scared

Created by Piplo Productions.

A little squirrel announces that he was once very, very scared and finds out that he is not alone. Lots of little animals went through scary experiences, but they react in different ways. Turtle hides and gets a tummy ache, monkey clings, dog barks, and elephant doesn’t like to talk about it. They need help, and they get help from grown-ups who help them feel safe and learn ways to cope with difficult feelings. This story was written to help children and grown-ups (parents, teachers, and other important adults) understand how stress can affect children and ways to help them.